By National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)
This record addresses the dimension of radioactivity and offers with the enormous variety of diverse radioactive fabrics that experience develop into on hand within the final 3 many years, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for functions in drugs, clinical study, and undefined. It additionally addresses low-level radioactivity measurements for the tracking of radioactivity in environmental media, similar to air and water, in reference to the keep an eye on of radioactive effluents linked to the construction of nuclear energy or using radionuclides.
Preface to the 1st version
Preface to the second one variation
desk of Contents
2. Physics of a few Radiation Detectors
three. basic or Direct Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
four. oblique or Comparative Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
five. options for the instruction of normal resources for Radioactivity Measurements
6. The Assay of Radioactivity and the identity of Radionuclides in Environmental, clinical, and business Laboratories
eight. Measurements coverage, criteria, Traceability and the assertion of Uncertainty
Appendix A: Nuclear-Decay information for chosen Radionuclides
Appendix B: The records of Radioactive Decay
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Additional info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd edition
Examples of the use of the "scintillation figure of merit" are given in Birks (1975). Table 5 shows solvent scintillation efficiencies relative to that of toluene. It is evident that all good solvents have an aromatic structure. Dioxane is included in the table because of its significance as a solvent for water and aqueous solutions. Dioxane alone has a low relative scintillation efficiency, but with the addition of naphthalene the efficiency becomes comparable with that of benzene. Many scintillation liquids contain an additional component generally referred to as a secondary solute, or secondary scintillator.
Organic phosphors, in general, exhibit appreciable attenuation. Relevant characteristics of some of the more commonly used scintillators are given in Tables 3 and 4. 3 Conversion of Fluorescent Radiation to Electrons (Phototube) To increase the collection efficiency of the light emitted by the scintillator (as shown in Figure lo), it is surrounded by a thin reflector of aluminum oxide. Of the photons produced in the scintillator, the number striking the cathode surface of the phototube will depend upon the geometry and the optical properties of the system, including those of the reflector and any light guides between the scintillator and the cathode of the phototube.
03 6 Large crystals, not quite clear. Pure crystals difficult to synthesize. Good crystals readily obtainable. g m Good crystals, readily obtainable. =! 0 z 8 - 12 7 10 75 - Clear crystals difficult to obtain. Good crystals eaey to obtain. 4 SCINTILLATION DETECTORS / 39 number of photoelectrons, P, produced by p photons generated in the scintillator may be expressed by the following relationship Typically EL may be as large as 95 percent while cc usually lies between 10 and 20 percent. In order to make cc as large as possible, the phototube is designed so that the spectral response of the photocathode material closely matches the photon spectrum emitted by the scintillator material being used.