A programmer's introduction to C# by Harvey M. Deitel, Paul J. Deitel, Jeffrey A. Listfield, Tem

By Harvey M. Deitel, Paul J. Deitel, Jeffrey A. Listfield, Tem R. Nieto, Cheryl H. Yaeger, Marina Zlatkina

Written as an creation to the recent C#, this advisor takes the skilled C programmer a number of steps past the fundamentals. It covers items, info varieties, and circulation regulate, or even delves into a few historical past at the new Microsoft web Frameworks surroundings. holding in brain that this can be for these acquainted with C (and even Java), the ebook is going into a number of the complex beneficial properties and enhancements present in this new language. It additionally bargains a comparability among C#, C++, visible easy, and Java.

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Instead of generating code to call the function directly, it writes a bit of dispatch code that at runtime will look at the real type of the object, and call the function associated with the real type, rather than just the type of the reference. This allows the correct function to be called even if the class wasn’t implemented when the caller was compiled. There is a small amount of overhead with the virtual dispatch, so it shouldn’t be used unless needed. A JIT could, however, notice that there were no derived classes from the class on which the function call was made, and convert the virtual dispatch to a straight call.

Just as a private field is always visible within a class, a private nested class is also visible from within the class that contains it. In the following example, the Parser class has a Token class that it uses internally. Without using a nested class, it might be written as follows: public class Parser { Token[] tokens; } public class Token { string name; } In this example, both the Parser and Token classes are publicly accessible, which isn’t optimal. Not only is the Token class just one more class taking up space in the designers that list classes, but it isn’t designed to be generally useful.

Class Accessibility The coarsest level at which accessibility can be controlled is at the class. In most cases, the only valid modifiers on a class are public, which means that everybody can see the class, and internal. " Internal is a way of granting access to a wider set of classes without granting access to everybody, and it is most often used when writing helper classes that should be hidden from the ultimate user of the class. NET Runtime world, internal equates to allowing access to all classes that are in the same assembly as this class.

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