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However, once a spray is initiated, a signal can be maintained for hours from microliter-level sample loadings. One of the challenges in developing an effective nanospray source is to provide a means to apply the electric potential to the solution exiting a smalldiameter needle. Several techniques (244–250) have been described for coating the needle tip with a conductive material such as gold. This is an effective approach, but the conductive coating can wear off after prolonged use, and research has been directed at developing a sturdy, conductive coating that can provide a nanospray over a prolonged period without wear.
1–1% range. The strong ion-pairing agent trifluoroacetic acid is known to reduce the analyte signal in ESI because analyte cations pair with trifluoroacetate anions, resulting in charge neutralization. This signal suppression can be reduced by postcolumn addition of a weaker acid with a higher boiling point than that of TFA (299). 1% TFA. The problem of excesss alkali metal cations was discussed in the preceding section. Although it is commonly necessary to remove excess Naϩ and Kϩ, it is occasionally necessary to add a cation source to promote the formation of species such as [M ϩ Na]ϩ or [M ϩ NH4]ϩ.
These low flow separation techniques use very small sample quantities, and they offer the possibility of fast separations and high separation efficiencies. Nanospray methods allow the analyst to extend the time available to analyze a small sample volume. This provides a convenient means for making high resolution measurements, signal averaging, or performing a variety of experiments with a single sample loading. Other benefits of nanospray methods arise from the reduction in onset potential that comes with decreasing the needle diameter.