By Professor Dr. Dr. h. c. Hermann Haken, Professor Dr. Hans Christoph Wolf (auth.)
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Additional info for Atomic and Quantum Physics: An Introduction to the Fundamentals of Experiment and Theory
For calibration, one uses ions of known mass. The intensities of the individual parabolic sections correspond to the relative amounts within the mixture of the ions which produced them. [Photo after Conrad from W. Finkelnburg: Einjahrung in die Atomphysik, 11, 12th ed. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1976) Fig. 12] 12 ---/ ' \~ C'" eB/2 13 x=-- . 2mv 14 IS 16 CH" CH,. 4) The x deflection is inversely proportional to the momentum m v of the particles. For this reason, one often calls the magnet causing the deflection a momentum/ilter.
Isotopes In electrolysis, molecules with the heavier isotope are less easily decomposed than those with the lighter isotope. This technique is used for large-scale separation of heavy and light hydrogen. There are also chemical reactions in which molecules with differing isotopic compositions react with different rates. In such cases, isotope separation can be achieved through chemical reaction. Since the availability of narrow-band, tunable light sources in the form of dye lasers, (see Chap. 21), laser photochemistry can also be used for isotope separation.
2 Scattering of Alpha Particles by a Foil In order to investigate the interaction cross section for collisions between alpha particles and atoms quantitatively, Rutherford and coworkers utilised the following experimental setup (Fig. 4): 4. The Nucleus of the Atom 38 The alpha particles, which are emitted by naturally radioactive material R, pass through a collimator and strike a thin metal foil F. The transmitted alpha intensity is determined by means of a scintillation screen S, observed through the lens L.