Battles that Changed History: An Encyclopedia of World by Spencer C. Tucker

By Spencer C. Tucker

The mythic and doomed stand of the three hundred Spartans at Thermopylae; the siege of Carthage in 149-146 BCE, which ended with Rome destroying town and enslaving the whole last Carthaginian inhabitants; the conflict of Hastings in 1066, arguably crucial conflict ever on English soil; the conflict of Trenton that stored the yankee progressive reason and confirmed the army attractiveness of normal Washington; the firebombing of Tokyo at the evening of March 9-10, 1945, that destroyed one area of the city.All of those conflicts—and 1000's more—played a vital position in defining the course of background and the evolution of human society. this article offers excessive school-level readers with particular descriptions of the battlefield activities that experience performed the best components in shaping army background and human life. targeted cognizance is paid to the larger ancient context and value of every conflict, particularly relating to different occasions.

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Syracuse used this time to strengthen its defenses. Alcibiades meanwhile was recalled to stand trial in Athens for impiety. Nicias and Lamachus then launched an attack on Syracuse and won a battle there, but the arrival of winter prevented further progress, and they suspended of- Siege of Syracuse╇ | 27 fensive operations. What had been intended as a lightning campaign now became a prolonged siege that sapped Athenian energies. Alicibades, fearing for his life, managed to escape Athens and find refuge in Sparta.

Massed Greek archers, however, gave the workers such trouble that the Persians abandoned the effort. On September 16 or 17 Xerxes met with his generals and chief advisers at Phalerum. Herodotus tells us that all except Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus, the commander of its squadron in the Persian fleet, favored engaging the Greek fleet in a pitched battle. Xerxes then brought advance elements of his fleet from Phalerum, off Salamis. He also put part of his vast army in motion toward the Peloponnese in the hope that this action would cause the Greeks of that region to order their ships from the main Greek fleet to return home, allowing him to destroy them at his leisure.

The battle hung in the balance, and Leotychidas and the Spartans arrived only just in time. After hard fighting, the Persians were routed. Perhaps 4,000 lost their lives, including Tigranes and his second-in-command. Greek losses must have also been heavy. The Greeks then seized what booty they could, set fire to the Persian ships in the stockade, and sailed to Samos. These two battles effectively ended the Greco-Persian Wars. The outcome was momentous. The Greeks were able to continue their civilization, and their control of the sea enabled them to export ideas as well as goods throughout the Mediterranean world.

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